Tuesday 4 December, 12:00 – 13:00
Tourist and resident perspectives on ‘SLUM TOURISM’: the case of the Vilakazi precinct (Soweto)
Prof. Gijsbert Hoogendoorn
Slum tourism as a topic of investigation has seen significant growth since the beginning of this decade with increasing theoretical and empirical depth. With this growth, some inconsistencies in terms of conceptual framing and use of terminology has emerged. The purpose of this paper is to argue against the inaccurate use of the term ‘slum tourism’ for township tourism in South Africa. This argument is presented through two sections of analysis and debate using Vilakazi precinct in Orlando West, Soweto, as a case study. Firstly, the paper analyses the emergence of township tourism as an academic focus in the literature and how it came to be classified as slum tourism, considering definitional conundrums. Secondly, the empirical data offer the perspectives of 1) residents, who live in and around Vilakazi street, on tourism in their area; and 2) tourists visiting the Vilakazi precinct. The analysis reveals that neither residents nor visitors consider the Vilakazi precinct and the larger area of Orlando West as a slum. The term slum tourism to describe township tourism in Soweto, is therefore inaccurate and inconsistent with the views of residents and visitors.
Prof. Gijsbert Hoogendoorn is an Associate Professor and Head at the Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, South Africa. His primary research interests are around second homes tourism, climate change and tourism and city tourism.
Tuesday 5 November, 12:30-13:30
Towards a New Institutional Political Ecology (NIPE)
Most commons studies include an institutional analysis that is often related to the work of Elinor Ostrom’s newer but also to so-called older institutional approaches. It is argued by Olivier de Sardan that the new and the old approaches differ considerably: The former is related more to the issue of economic efficiency focussing on the gain in reducing transaction costs, which institutions provide via coordination enabling to solve collective action dilemmas. The latter frames actors as rather being embedded in their socio-economic and political environment and uses a broader political economy framework, addressing issues of power relations between actors. As commons studies refer to issues of sustainable use of common pool resources, this book project proposes to have a closer look on how to bridge gaps between a more economic oriented and a more political oriented model in environmental studies. Therefore, this paper suggests to use a social anthropological version of New Institutionalism developed by Ensminger, which includes discussions on bargaining power of actors but as well on ideology (discourses and narratives) as a basis for the production of legitimacy by rational actors in the selection of rules (institution shopping) in a context of institutional pluralism. However, the driver for change in this approach stems from external, economic and value related processes. This approach gives a clear outline of structurally interrelated aspects, showing which elements trigger institutional changes in the management of the commons. However, there is a lack of conceptualisation of power in all these processes and this is done in Political Ecology. Therefore, the book projet proposes to marry these two approaches, which start from completely different views on actors` strategies and behaviours but which will give a more precise analysis for the study of the commons and institutional change if combined rather than used separately. The result, the New Institutional Political Ecology (NIPE), will be outlined by discussing different takes on the issue of power in Political Ecology and by outlining the New Institutionalism approach in Social Anthropology with its structural interrelated variables for explaining the commons governance in a changing ‘glocal’ world. For the presentation and orientation for the book project I discuss this combination by using an empirical case study of a proposed irrigation project in a commonly owned pasture in Zambia.
Tobias Haller is professor at the Institute of Social Anthropology at the University of Bern, Switzerland. He studied social anthropology, geography and sociology at the University of Zurich, Switzerland and also graduated there. He did research on institutional change in agriculture and common pool resources management in Cameroon and Zambia, led several comparative research projects on the management of the commons in Floodplains in Mali, Cameroon, Tanzania, Zambia and Botswana, on land, water and green grabbing with impact on gender relations in Kenya, Sierra Leone, Morocco, Ghana, Tanzania, Malawi, on Food Systems in Kenya and Bolivia, on social and environmental impacts of oil and mining companies worldwide, on the management of the commons in Switzerland and on constitutionality (participatory bottom-up institution building processes).
Tuesday 30 October, 12:30-13:30
Problems in paradise: Airbnb, the ‘sharing economy’ and social reproduction in New Zealand’s regional tourist towns
Since its inception in 2008 Airbnb has become the largest accommodation provider in the world. In New Zealand regional tourist towns are disproportionately represented, making them suitable sites for investigation of the Airbnb phenomenon. Drawing on interviews conducted in 2017 with Airbnb hosts from four regional tourist towns in New Zealand, a biopolitical lens illuminates forms of social reproduction emerging for these Airbnb hosts at community, family and personal levels. Airbnb is emblematic of ‘platform capitalism’: capitalism operated through digital infrastructures. Airbnb’s ‘dividuation’ of subjects (hosts) into data bites produces forms of subjectivity anticipated, but not guaranteed, to be amenable to the ‘dataveillance’ by which the platform operates. This research identifies three forms of subjectivity that allow hosts to engage with different effects. This set of subject-positions illuminate the calculative rationalities and material and affective resources employed by Airbnb hosts amidst a horizon of biopolitical contradictions.
Stella Pennell is a PhD candidate at Massey University, New Zealand, currently at WUR on a guest fellowship with CSPS. Stella’s research interests are in regional sociology and tourism.
|08:45 – 09:00||COFFEE/TEA|
|09:00 – 09:15||OPENING/WELCOME: CONVIVA||by Bram Büscher and Rob Fletcher, Sociology of Development and Change, Wageningen University & Research|
|09:15 – 10:30||SESSION I: Relating Humans and Wildlife|
|Nature-based tourism and indigenous communities in the Brazilian Pantanal: between representations of biodiversity and biocultural diversity||by Koen Arts, Forest and Nature Conservation, Wageningen University & Research|
|Institutional Arrangements for Conservation, Development and Tourism in Eastern and Southern Africa||by René van der Duim, Cultural Geography, Wageningen University & Research|
|The importance of emotions in human-wildlife relationships||by Maarten Jacobs, Cultural Geography, Wageningen University & Research|
|Carnivores, colonisation and conflict: how to subjugate a nation and its wildlife||by Niki Rust, Research Associate, Newcastle University|
|10:30 – 10:45||COFFEE/TEA BREAK|
|10:45 – 12:00||SESSION II: Human-wildlife co-existence in practice I|
|Designing wild-user friendly conservation technologies for animals||by Clemens Driessen, Cultural Geography, Wageningen University & Research|
|Behavioural Ecology and Wildlife Conservation||by Marc Naguib, Behavioral Ecology, Wageningen University & Research|
|Living with the wolf: A Luhmannian perspective to human-wildlife conflict in Redes Natural Park, Spain||by Isabeau Ottolini and Arjaan Pellis (Cultural Geography) and Jasper de Vries (Strategic Communication), Wageningen University & Research|
|Human-bear cohabitation in Rodopi mountains, Bulgaria||by Svetoslava Toncheva, Comparative Folklore Studies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences|
|12:00 – 13:00||LUNCH (in Orion cafeteria)|
|13:00 – 14:15||SESSION III: Human-wildlife co-existence in practice II|
|Managing human-wildlife conflicts: examples from WWF programmes||by Femke Hilderink-Koopmans, World Wildlife Fund, The Netherlands|
|Re-examining wildlife management: Living with bears and boars||by Susan Boonman-Berson, Independent Researcher, www.bearatwork.org|
|Balancing with the Wolfs? Institutional change in dealing with large carnivores in Törbel (Switzerland)||by Ariane Zangger, Department of Anthropology, University of Bern, Switzerland|
|What do animals tell us about poaching?||by Frank van Langevelde, Resource Ecology, Wageningen University & Research|
|14:15 – 15:30||SESSION IV: Species, entanglements and politics|
|Landscape as a trap: tracing duck decoys as multi-species living machines||by Eugenie van Heijgen, Cultural Geography, Wageningen University & Research|
|Global conservation, local negotiation: a case of Barnacle geese||by Yulia Kisora, Cultural Geography, Wageningen University & Research|
|The Apex-Handbag: From egg-gathering natives via croc-farmers to the distributers of quality leather in a global market||by Samuel Weissman, Department of Anthropology, University of Bern|
|The dynamic and two dimensional nature of human-wildlife relations: Learnings from a biosocial study on human-tiger interactions from Panna Tiger Reserve, India||by Shekhar Kolipaka, World Wildlife Fund, The Netherlands|
|15:30 – 15:45||COFFEE/TEA BREAK|
|15:45 – 17:00||SESSION V: CON-VIVA Project Case Studies|
|Jaguar Conservation, Brazil||by Katia Ferraz, Forest Science Department, University of São Paulo|
|Grizzly Bear Reintroduction, US (California)||by Peter Alagona, Departments of History and Geography, University of California – Santa Barbara|
|Lion Conservation, Tanzania||by Amy Dickman, Wildlife Conservation Research, Oxford University|
|Grey Wolf Conservation, Finland||by Anja Nygren, Development Studies, University of Helsinki|
|17:00 – 17:15||CLOSING|